ISPO

Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 22 / Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 1998)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Carcinogen DNA and Protein Adducts as Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Environmental Cancer Epidemiology

Christopher P. Wild, Ph.D., and Paola Pisani, Ph.D.

Several hundred carcinogen adducts have been identified. The predictive value of a given adduct measurement for disease risk needs to be interpreted in relation to the multi-factorial, multi-step nature of carcinogenesis and to the relative short period of persistence after carcinogen exposure. >>>

DNA Repair Enhancement by a Combined Supplement of Carotenoids, Nicotinamide, and Zinc

Yezhou Sheng, D.M.Sc., Ronald W. Pero, Ph.D., Anders R. Olsson, Ph.D., Carl Bryngelsson, B.Sc., and Jianyi Hua, M.D.

Individuals on oral supplement of Nicoplex (carotenoids, nicotinamide, and zinc gluconate) for seven consecutive weeks had enhanced DNA repair and increased resistance to DNA damage. Rats with supplemented intake of Nicoplex for 6 or 8 weeks had a statistically significant increase in splenocyte DNA repair compared to placebo controls. >>>

Predictive Factors of Tumor Response and Prognostic Factors of Survival During Lung Cancer Chemotherapy

Patrice Ray, M.D., Xavier Quantin, M.D., Jean Grenìero, M.D., Ph.D., and Jean-Louis Pujol M.D.

In patients with small cell lung cancer, a complete response to chemotherapy, a limited stage, no more than 5% loss of body weight, a normal serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a normal serum cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA 21-1) level, a normal serum tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and a normal neuron-specific enolase (NSE), was associated with a longer survival compared to patients without respective low values. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer, metastasis, poor performance status, mediastinal lymph node metastasis, weight loss lover 5%, high serum level of CYFRA 21-1 or LDH, and lack of response to chemotherapy was correlated with poor prognosis for survival. >>>

The Clinical Relevance of Chemosensitivity Testing in Ovarian Cancer

Colin G. Taylor, F.R.C.Path., Jean M. Sargent, B.Sc., Alena W. Elgie, B.A., Fiona D. A. Reid, M.Sc., Peter A. Alton, M.B., B.S., and J. Gordon Hill, F.R.C.S.

In 73 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma, cells of solid biopsies or ascetic fluid were tested for chemosensitivity using the MTT (3-4, 5-dimethyl diazole -2, 5 -diphenol tetrazolium bromide) assay. The highest sensitivity rates were obtained for cisplatin and carboplatin and for the alkylating agents melphalan and mafosfamide. >>>

Biological Profile of in Situ Breast Cancer Investigated by Immunohistochemical Technique

Giuseppe Albonico, M.D., Patrizia Querzoli, M.D., Stefano Ferretti, M.D., Rosa Rinaldi, M.D., and Italo Nenci, M.D.

Use of multiple biological markers (ER, PR, PI, NEU, p53 and bcl-2) permitted identification of four biological phenotypes. Cases were categorized as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comedo, DCIS non comedo, DCIS cribiform and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). >>>

Preparation and Characterization of Differently Aggregated Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Subpopulations from Surgical Specimens

Jürgen Bosch, M.Sc., Reinhard Brossmer, Ph.D., M.D., Wolfgang Kemmner, Ph.D., and Peter Schlag, M.D.

Nonaggregating cells differed from aggregated cells by the increased number of alpha 2, 6- linked sialic acid residues on terminal GalcNAc groups of cell surface glycoconjugates and loss of E-Cadherin reactivity. Enhanced activity of beta galactoside alpha 2, 6- sialyltransferase (ST6Gal 1) was found in metastatic colorectal carcinomas to be responsible for reduced aggregation of cells, thus facilitating the release of single cells from the primary tumor. >>>

Brain Tissue Autofluorescence: An Aid for Intraoperative Delineation of Tumor Resection Margins

Giovanni Bottiroli, Ph.D., Anna Cleta Croce, Ph.D., Donata Locatelli, Rosanna Nano, Ph.D., Ermanno Giombelli, M.D., Alberto Messina, M.D., and Eugenio Benericetti, M.D.

Autofluorescence emission of unstained glioblastoma resected tissue sections was lower in the tumor than in the normal tissue. Intraoperative delineation of tumor resection margins was possible by the significantly lower autofluorescence in the glioblastoma area than in the white matter. >>>

Pathological Observations During Treatment with the Biological Response Modifier Maruyama Vaccine in Cancer: Implications for Collagen Production in the Prevention of Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

Tetsuo Kimoto, M.D., Ph.D.

Use of Maruyama vaccine (SSM) produced a marked production of collagen fibers that encapsulated cells of the tumor and of their metastasis, without a direct cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In the treatment of two cases with advanced breast cancer, administration of SSM was associated with long term survival of five and six years after initial diagnosis. >>>

c-Myc-Associated Genomic Instability of the Dihydrofolate Reductase Locus in Vivo

Cheryl Taylor, M.Sc., and Sabine Mai, Ph.D.

The occurrence of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene amplification as a result of c-Myc overexpression was determined by intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2, 6, 10, 14- tetramethylpentadecane) in plasmacytoma-susceptible Balb/c mice. Increased c-Myc protein levels and DHFR hybridization signals in the pristane-treated Balb/c mice identified the DHFR gene as a molecular marker of c-Myc-dependent genomic instability. >>>

Peroxisome Proliferators Induce Apoptosis in Hepatoma Cells

Rosa A. Canuto, M.D., Giuliana Muzio, B.Sc. Gabriella Bonelli, B.Sc., Marina Maggiora, B.Sc., Riccardo Autelli, B.Sc., Giuseppe Barbiero, B.Sc., Paola Costelli, B.Sc., Olga Brossa, B.Sc. and Francesco M. Baccino, M.D.

In rats with AH-130 hepatoma, clofibrate-induced apoptosis did not depend on peroxisome activation or on production of oxygen radicals by peroxisomes. >>>

Skin Cancer Prevention Counseling by Pharmacists: Specific Outcomes of an Intervention Trial

Joni A. Mayer, Ph.D., Donald J. Slymen, Ph.D., Laura Eckhardt, M.P.H., Christy Rosenberg, M.P.H., Barbara M. Stepanski, M.P.H., Lorri Creech, M.P.H., Richard C. Palmer, M.P.H., John P. Elder, Ph.D., Gerald Graf, Ph.D., and Sandra T. Anderson, M.P.H.

Fifty-four pharmacy sites (N = 178 pharmacists) were randomly assigned to evaluate the effects of an intervention on pharmacists behaviors, knowledge and attitudes related to skin cancer prevention counseling. The intervention improved the pharmacists' rates of skin cancer prevention counseling, related knowledge and perceived expertise. Pharmacists in the intervention group reported skin cancer counseling of approximately 30% of their patients versus only 11% of the control group pharmacists. >>>

 

Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA
1998