ISPO

Published in Cancer Detection and Prevention 1998; 22(2):87-99.

Evaluation of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Circulating Immune Complexes as Prognostic Indicators in Cancer Patients

Mehar Aziz, MD, DNBa, Shakeel Akhtar, MDa, Abida Malik, MDb

Departments of aPathology and bMicrobiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Address all correspondence and reprint requests to: Mehar Aziz, MD, DNB, Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202001 (U.P.), India.

ABSTRACT: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were estimated in 55 cancer patients and 25 control volunteers to evaluate their prognostic significance. Cancer patients comprised head and neck cancer (11), cancer breast (13), gastrointestinal cancer (10), genitourinary cancer (11), and lymphomas and sarcomas (10). CMI was tested in vitro by early rosette-forming cells (ARFC) and total rosette-CL; forming cell (TRFC) counts. ARFC count in control group was 758.1 +/- 78.09 cells/cumm. In advancing clinical stages of cancer (I-Iv), ARFC counts were decreased (i.e., 601.12 +/- 74.96 [p < 0.01]; 494.8 +/- 71.83 [p < 0.001]; 432.44 +/- 36.05 [p < 0.001], and 438.55 +/- 69.99 [p < 0.001] cells/cumm, respectively). TRFC count in control group was 1029 +/- 88.39 cells/cumm. In cancer stages I through IV, these counts decreased significantly (i.e., 699.63 +/- 66.24; 597.55 +/- 82.9; 505.11 +/- 52.56; and 501.55 +/- 69.99 cells/cumm, respectively [p < 0.001]. Dinitrochlorobenzene cutaneous reactivity in vivo was 100% positive in control group, 62.5% positive in cancer stage I, 5% positive in stage II, and negative in stages III and IV. CIC of intermediate size were estimated by polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG pptn) technique, which detects CIC in the ratio of 2:1 (Ag2Ab). Mean PEG index in control group was 39.5 +/- 4.65; sequential increase in CIC was observed in advancing clinical stages of cancer (I-IV)(i.e., 49 +/- 7.03 [p < 0.01]; 75.38 +/- 44.01 [p < 0.001]; 93.38 +/- 44.57 [p < 0.001]; and 216.00 +/- 147.05 [p < 0.001], respectively). Latex agglutination inhibition (LAI) tite was done to detect CIC as small as 8s, which constitute the opposite polar end of CIC spectrum. LAI titers in control group were nil. However, LAI titers in cancer stages I through IV were 1 +/- 2.64; 8.6 +/- 5.6 (p < 0.001); 12.00 +/- 8.11 (p <0.001); and 25.77 +/- 9.06 (p <0.001), respectively. Decrease in CMI and subsequent increase in CIC indicate unfavorable prognosis in cancer patients, and also precede clinical manifestation of increased tumor mass in vivo.

KEY WORDS: cancer, cell-mediated immunity, circulating immune complexes.

http://www.cancerprev.org/Journal/Issues/22/2/243