Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 20 / Issue 6 (Nov-Dec 1996)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

A Nested Case-Control Study on Alcohol Drinking, Tobacco Smoking, and Cancer

Motol Murata, Ph.D., Kimiko Takayama, Bernard C.K. Choi, M.Sc., Ph.D., and Anita W.P. Pak, Ph.D.

A synergistic effect of alcohol intake and tobacco smoking was observed for the upper aerodigestive tract and bladder cancer but not for stomach cancer. The data is based upon 887 cases and 1774 controls from a cohort 17200 male participants of a gastric mass survey who were followed for up to nine years. >>>

Changes in Skin Protection Behaviors, Attitudes, and Sunburn: In a Population with the Highest Incidence of Skin Cancer in the World

Peter D. Baade, M.Med.Sc., Kevin P. Balanda, Ph.D., and John B. Lowe, Dr.P.H.

Identical surveys over 2 summer periods in Queensland, Australia, revealed that skin protection attitudes and behaviors had changed favorably. The perceived need to redden the skin prior to developing a tan decreased significantly with an increase in the percentage of people who used sunscreen protection and shade between the hours of 11:00 and 15:00. >>>

Activation of Conventional Mammalian Protein Kinase C Isoforms Expressed in Budding Yeast Modulates the Cell Doubling Time: A Potential in Vivo Screen for Protein Kinase C Activators

Hui-Ling Shieh, Ph.D., Hans Hansen, Ph.D., Jianwei Zhu, Ph.D., and Heimo Riedel, Ph.D.

A rapid assay to screen natural compounds in vivo for their protein Kinase C (PKC) regulatory potential and mapping of underlying interactions was developed by testing increased cell-doubling times in response to the PKC activators, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), mezerin and indolactamV. >>>

Modulation of Nitrate-Nitrite Conversion in the Oral Cavity

Johannes M. van Maanen, Ph.D., Allan A. van Geel, M.Sc., and Jos C. Klienjans, Ph.D.

Comparison of antibacterial constituents 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 0..03% triclosan, amyloglucoditase/gluose oxidase, and 0.3% triclosan/0.75% zinc citrate in mouth washes and tooth pastes revealed that the antibacterial agent chlorhexidine had greatest effectiveness in the reduction of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity. >>>

Mutagenicity of Endocervical Mucus Associated with Genital Tract Infections

Aditya Parashari, Ph.D., Veena Singh, M.D., M.M. Gupta, D.S., L. Satyanararayana, M.S., D. Chattopadhya, M.D., and A. Sehgal, M.D.

One hundred twenty-four symptomatic women were studied for presence of mutagens in endocervical secretions using the Ames test. Mutagenic property of cervical mucous was detected in samples of 18.5% of women with chlamydial infection while human papilloma virus infection was not associated with any mutagenicity. >>>

Qualitative Assessment of Mixed Chimerism After Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation with Regard to Leukemic Relapse

G. Kogler, Ph.D., A. Hernandez, Ph.D., A. Heyll, M.D., H.H. Wolf, M.D., and P. Wernet, M.D.

Serial peripheral blood specimens from eight adult patients after sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantations were evaluated for mixed chimerism, residual host cells and leukemic relapse. Simultaneous immunophenotypic and genotypic analysis and bcr-abl detection by reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction improved the discrimination between malignant cells and normal residual host cells. >>>

Clinical Determinants of Mammographic Dysplasia Patterns

Michele Deschamps, Ph.D., Pierre R. Band, M.D., F.R.C.P. , Andrew J. Coidman, Ph.D., T. Gregory Hislop, M.D., and Donald J. Longley, M.D., F.R.C.P.

The association between clinical manifestation of benign breast disease and mammographic patterns was investigated among 923 premenopausal and 471 postmenopausal women. Cyclical (79%) and noncyclical (21%) of mastalgia was associated with breast swelling. Mammary dysplasia involving 50% or more of the breast parenchyma was observed in 46% of women. >>>

Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Tru-Cut Biopsy of Palpable Mammary Lesions

Chrisoula D. Scopa, M.D., Demetrios Koukouras, M.D., John Spiliotis, M.D., John Harkoftakis, M.D., Sotiris Koureleas, M.D., Dora Kyriakopoulou, M.D., and Evagelos Tzoracoleftherakis, M. D.

The authors studied 215 aspirates from 219 patients and 120 tissue-core biopsies from 109 patients to assess the accuracy and predictive value of fine-needle aspirations (FNA) and True -Cut needle biopsy of palpable breast lesions. The accuracy of FNA was 94% with 14% false-negative and no false-positive findings. True-Cut needle biopsy was diagnostically accurate in 90% of the cases with 42% false-negative and zero false-positive results. Thus, the diagnostic accuracy of FNA appeared superior to True-Cut needle biopsy. >>>

Localization of Anthracycline Accumulation in Sensitive and Resistant Urothelial Tumor Cell Lines

Claire L. Davies, B.SC., Peter M. Duffy, F.R.C.S., Alexander J. MacRobert, Ph.D., Marilena C. Loizidou, Ph.D., Alan J. Cooper, Ph.D., and I. Taylor, F.R.C.S., M.D.

High resolution fluoresence analysis and confocal microscopy was used to identify anthracycline fluoresence. Sensitive cells took up more drug than resistant cells. Anthracycline fluoresence in sensitive cells was prodominantly in the nucleus while the drug uptake in resistant cells was evident by both low nuclear and cytoplasmic fluoresence. The essential fatty acid gamma linolenic acid (GLA) appeared to increase drug uptake into both resistant and sensitive cells. >>>

Review: Control of Precancer Cell Transformation Into Cancer Cells: Its Relevance to Cancer Prevention

Aurel P Lupulescu, M.D., Ph.D.

This review article deals with origin, biology and heterogeneity of precancer cells. Sections are devoted to the control of preneoplastic cells transformation into cancer cells, biomarkers for precancer cell detection, cancer prevention and future research directions. >>>


Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA