Published in Cancer Detection and Prevention 1996; 20(5).
Dna repair enhancement and immune stimulation by the combined supplements of carotenoids, nicotinamide and zinc in volunteersDept Cellular Molecular Biology, Section Molecular Ecogenetics, University Lund, S-22007 Lund, Sweden
Carotenoids and zinc have been reported to enhance immune response of lymphocytes and low dose nicotinamide has been shown to protect against DNA damage by oxidative stress. Here we report the effects of the combined supplementation of these drugs on DNA repair and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) induced mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human healthy volunteers. DNA damage and DNA repair were assessed by alkaline elution and Poly-adenosine-diphosphoribosyl-polymerase (PARP) activity in lymphocytes, and NAD pools were assessed in erythrocytes by HPLC. Four volunteers were involved in the study for 5 weeks of a baseline evaluation period, 8 weeks followed by daily supplementation of Nicoplex(tm) (Nicoplex, Oxigene, Inc. = nicotinamide 100 mg, zinc gluconate 10 mg, carotenoids as Caroplex(r) 100mg). Blood sampling and analysis of the above biomarkers were carried out once per week during the evaluation period. The supplementation of nicotinamide, zinc and carotenoids resulted in statistically significant decreased DNA damage, increased DNA repair, elevated PARP activity, higher NAD concentration and enhanced lymphocyte mitogenic response to PHA when compared in the same subjects before and after the supplementation. However, when the same subjects had re-established the base-line and were supplemented with nicotinamide, zinc and carotenoids offered in combination with megadoses of other micronutrients (vitamin A, B-1, B-2, B-5, B-6, B-12, C, E, L-cysteine, L-glutathione, selenium, folic acid biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid, inositol, choline as in Radical Fighters(r)), there were no changes of DNA repair and mitogenic response after the supplementation. Based on the results and other reports, it is suggested that the effects of nicotinamide, zinc and carotenoids on DNA repair and immune response depend on their diversified mechanisms while the property of the micronutrients in the supplementation may compromise the effects by contrast indicating that the absorption of carotenoids, nicotinamides and zinc due to the presence of other interesting micronutrients or drug interaction.
Paper presented at the International Symposium on the Impact of Cancer Biotechnology on Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicators; Nice, France; October 26 - 28, 1996; in the section on Immunotherapy.