Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 19 / Issue 6 (Nov-Dec 1995)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Further Development of a Multifactor Potency Scheme for Chemical Carcinogens

KEY WORDS: cancer, carcinogens, potency, TD50, highest average daily dose .

A multifactor carcinogen potency scheme has been developed to determine the relative potency of chemicals by 1) dose potency adjusted for tumor responses in organs based upon their historical control of tumor incidence, 2) induction of malignant tumor incidence, 3) induction of tumors in multiple sites, 4) tumorigenic responses in both sexes of the same species, and 5) induced carcinogenesis in multiple species. >>>

Detection of Antibodies to Avian leukosis/sarcoma Viruses and Reticuloendotheliosis Viruses in Humans by Western Blot Assay

Eric S. Johnson, M.B., B.S., Ph.D. Lila Overby, B.S., and Richard Philpot, Ph.D.

Humans exposed to avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) have serum antibodies directed against ALSV p27, p19, p15 and p12 antigens as well as a serologic response to recticuloendotheliosis viruses. >>>

Alcohol, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Breast Cancer

Jonas Ranstam, Ph.D., and Hakan Olsson, M.D., Ph.D.

A five-fold increase in breast cancer risk was found in premenopausal women who consumed more than three bottles of beer a week, while other alcohol consumptions and smoking were not significantly related to cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, consumptions of beer, wine and spirits appeared to be protective and smoking was not significantly related to breast cancer risk. >>>

Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity by Serum Derived From Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Hirobumi Kumazawa, M.D., Masayuki Minamino, M.D., Naoya Yukawa, M.D., and Markus Hess, M.D.

In 24 of 40 patients with head and neck cancer the addition of patients autologous serum to lymphocytes and k562 cell suspensions resulted in inhibition of NK cell activity compared to addition of no human serum or healthy human serum. >>>

p53 Alterations in Progenitor Lesions of the Bronchus, Esophagus, Oral Cavity, and Colon

William P. Bennett, M.D.

This summary report contains data about the timing and frequency of p53 alterations in progenitor lesions of human lung, esophagus, head and neck and colon. Molecular assays may identify p53 mutations in early dysplastic lesions of squamous cell lung cancer and may permit early diagnosis in urine, sputum and stool samples while p53 mutations occur late in the development of colorectal cancer. >>>

Sampling Method as a Key Factor in Identifying K-ras Oncogene Mutations in Preneoplastic Colorectal Lesions

Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D., Toshinari Minamoto, M.D., Ross Butler, M.D., Martin Tobi, M.D., Feng-Qui Luo, B.S., Edith Zang, Ph.D., Hiroyasu Esumi, M.D., and Takashi Sugimura, M.D.

Mutated alleles of ras oncogene have been identified in the normal colorectal mucosa as well as in the tumor site of patients with colorectal cancer. The method of enriched polymerase chain reaction (EPCR) permits amplification of the enriched fraction of a mutant gene by restriction endonucleases which specifically cleave the normal but not the mutated allele. >>>

Immunoresponsiveness of Cancer Patients: Effect of Blood Transfusion and Immune Reactivity of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes

Lucia Quintiliani, M.D., Paola Iudicone, Sc.B.D., Marco Di Girolamo, M.D., Anna Buzzonetti, Sc.B.D., Marina Guglielmetti, Sc.B.D., Paolo Lapponi, Sc.B.D , Paolo Traietti, M.D., Danilo Monno, M.D., and Elena Giuliani, M.D.

In 52 patients with colorectal cancer the immunomodulation effect of blood transfusion was examined prior to and 8 to 20 days after surgery. The immunologic responses demonstrated no significant differences in NK cytotoxic activity, lymphokine synthesis, serum prostaglandin (PGE2) levels and PGE2 release between transfused and nontransfused patients before and after surgery. >>>

Flow Cytometry Evaluation of the Multidrug-Resistant Phenotype with Functional Tests Involving Uptake of Daunorubicin, Hoechst 33342, or Rhodamine 123: A Comparative Study

Gerard Lizard, Ph.D., Patrick Roignot, M.D., Marc Maynadie, M.D., Sarab Lizard-Nacol, Ph.D., Marie-France Poupon, M.D., Ph.D., and Michel Bordes, M.D.

The effectiveness of functional tests for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression in multidurg resistant (MDR) cells has been measured by flow cytometry utilizing uptake of daunarubicin (DNR) or rhodamine (RH123). DNR fluorescence intensity was enhanced in resistant cells only. RH123 was the best dye to distinguish sensitive and resistant cells by lack of incorporation of the dye in resistant cells and high accumulation in sensitive cells. >>>

Use of Strip Biopsy for Early Duodenal Cancer: A Case Report

S. Obata, M.D., K. Araki, M.D., K. Kimura, M.D., and K. Maeda, M.D.

A patient with early duodenal cancer was successfully treated by strip biopsy using injection of physiological saline into the submucosa to induce horizontal separation of the mucosa from the underlying tissue. Strip biopsy is advocated for adequate tumor resection of lesions that are less than 2cm in diameter and for cases with protruding, flat or erosive lesions. >>>


Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA