ISPO

Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 19 / Issue 3 (May-Jun 1995)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Hereditary Cancer in Adults

Henry T Lynch, M.D., Ramon M Fusaro, Ph.D., M.D., Jane Lynch, B.S.N.

This extensive review deals with the cardinal features of hereditary cancers, the role of family cancer history and the hereditary cancer syndromes of familial adenomatous polyposis, the Lynch syndrome, the hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary malignant melanoma, lung cancer and familial pancreatic cancer. The authors conclude that advances in molecular biology may permit assessment of germline mutations for identification of high risk individuals and for removal of premalignant lesions through early cancer detection. Possibly the development of pharmacologic agents may lead to primary prevention by blocking initiation or promotion of carcinogenesis. >>>

Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations in Human Ovarian Carcinomas

Marion Kiechle-Schwarz, M.D., Thomas Bauknecht, M.D., Johanne Schmidt, M.D., Lioba Wa1z, Albrecht Pfleiderer, M.D.

Cytogenetic analysis of malignant ovarian tumors from 42 patients revealed 18 cases with clonal chromosomal abnormalities, 5 cases with non-clonal changes and 19 cases with normal karyotypes. Chromosomal abnormalities involving trisomy 12 and 7, trisomy 6 and simple translocations and deletions of X, 1, 2, 6 and 7 were noted. The most common structural rearrangements were seen in chromosome bands 11p13-14 and 19p13. >>>

The Potential Carcinogenic Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation: A Review

Yoav Horn, M.D.

Epidemiological studies suggest that residential electromagnetic fields could increase the risk of childhood cancer. Use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy and postnatal exposure to electric blankets was weakly associated with childhood cancer and more strongly with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Although no conclusion can yet be drawn, various studies revealed a relationship between exposure to nonionizing radiation from magnetic fields and an increased incidence of leukemia and brain tumors. >>>

Wood-Related Occupations and Laryngeal Cancer

Marina Pollan, M.P.H., M.D., Gonzalo Lopez-Abente, M.D., Ph.D.

Furniture workers and other woodworkers were the principal wood-related occupational groups at high risk of laryngeal cancer. The risk increased in all cases in which exposure began before 21 years of age and declined significantly in proportion to the number of years after cessation of exposure. >>>

Studies of Biomarkers in Aluminum Workers Occupationally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

S Ovrebo, Cand.Real., A Haugen, Dr.Philos., K Hemminki, M.D., K Szyfter, Ph.D., PA Drablos, MD, M Skogland, M.S.

In aluminum plant workers the exposure and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was measured by urinary excretion of the PAH-metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean value of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene varied from 1.08 to 2.44 mmol/mol creatinine in the exposed workers compared to 0.36 and 0.20 mmol/mol creatinine in 2 control groups. >>>

Human Alveolar Macrophages: Comparison of Cell Size, Autofluorescence, and HLA-DR Antigen Expression in Smokers and Nonsmokers

Wulf Pankow, M.D., Kurt Neumann, M.D., Josef Ruschoff, M.D., Peter von Wichert, M.D.

The total cell number and the number of alveolar macrophages (AM) were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. AM of smokers were larger in size and autofluorescence was stronger and more variable than in nonsmokers with a reduction in HLA-DR antigen expression on AM of smokers. >>>

Chemically Induced Sarcomas in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Dose Effects on Autoantibody Levels and Tumor Progression

S Faiderbe, Ph.D., JL Chagnaud, Ph.D., M Geffard, M.D., Ph.D.

A single injection of a low dose (0.125 to 1.00 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene (13[a]P) induced growth of malignant sarcomas in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors grew more slowly than after injection of the larger dose of 2 mg B[a]P, but first appearance and levels of antiphosphatidylinositol autoantibodies were independent of carcinogenic dose. >>>

Detection of DNA Mutations in Acid Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Archival Tumor Specimens by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

Antonio Marchetti, M.D., Ph.D., Giorgio Merlo, Ph.D., Fiamma Buttitta, M.D., Silvia Pellegrini, Ph.D., Robert Callahan, Ph.D., Maria Bistocchi, M.D., Ph.D., Francesco Squartini, M.D., Ph.D.

Structural abnormalities of the p53 gene were found by the polymerase chain reaction in 9 (18%) of paraffin-embedded tissue blocks prepared from 50 nonsmall cell lung cancers. This suggests that paraffin-embedded tissues may be used as a source of DNA. >>>

Role of the Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions in Tumor Detection and Prognosis

Achille Pich, M.D., Luigi Chiusa, M.D., Elena Margaria, M.D.

Different patterns and number of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) that increase progressively during the cell cycle from GO to S phase may distinguish benign and malignant cells. The nuclear number of AgNORs is associated with histologic grade and pathologic stage of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, multiple myeloma and melanocyte lesions. AgNOR counts are also related to prognosis in cases of pharyngeal carcinoma and multiple myeloma. >>>

Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60): A New Model to Study the Effects of Chemopreventive Agents on h(2)0(2) Production

Ramesh S Bhimani, Ph.D., Zhaojing Zhong, M.D., Eric Schleifer, B.S., Walter Troll, Ph.D., Krystyna Frenkel, Ph.D.

Formation of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA)-mediated H(2)O(2) and its suppression by chemopreventive agents was demonstrated using human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. It is suggested that this model may be useful for screening chemopreventive agents. >>>

 

Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA
1995