Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 18 / Issue 6 (Nov-Dec 1994)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Comparative Effects of Milk, Yogurt, Butter, and Margarine on Mammary Tumorigenesis Induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in Rats

Susumu Yanagi, PhD, Mariko Yamashita, MD, Kumiko Ogoshi, PhD, Shunsuke Imai, MD, PhD

Dietary margarine enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in 7.12 dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene (DMBA)-treated rats. Milk and yogurt also enhanced DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis while tumor incidence did not seem to be influenced by butter. >>>

Women and Lung Cancer: A Comparison of Active and Passive Smokers with Nonexposed Nonsmokers

GH Miller, PhD, CPC, FAIC, Joseph A Golish, MD, FACP, FCCP, Charles E Cox, MD, FACS, Donna C Chacko, MD

Deaths from lung cancer occurred in 0.2 percent of women with no known exposure to tobacco smoke against deaths in 0.9 percent of nonsmoking women who were exposed to tobacco smoke and in 8 percent of women who smoked. >>>

Do Neuroendocrine cells, Particularly the D-cell, Play a Role in the Development of Gastric Stump Cancer?

Helge L Waldum, MD, 0lav A Haugen, MD, Eiliv Brenna, MD

Tumor cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase in 4 of 10 tumors of the diffuse type whereas none of the intestinal-type carcinomas contained tumor cells positive for neuron-specific enolase. >>>

A Clinicopathological Analysis of Early Gastric Cancer: Retrospective Study with Special Reference to Lymph Node Metastasis

Ayao Torii, M.D., Masahiko Sakai, M.D., Kazutomo Inoue, M.D., Hirohiko Yamabe, M.D.,Shunji Ueda, M.D., Minoru Okuma, M D.

The incidence of lymph node metastasis was 3.4% for mucosal cancer and 23.5% for submucosal cancer. Early gastric cancer less than 20mm in diameter had no lymph node metastasis while those with ulceration had a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis. Intramucosal gastric carcinoma less than 20mm in diameter without ulceration may benefit from curative resection by endoscopic mucosectomy. >>>

The Expression of HLA Class I Antigen in Prostate Cancer in Relation to Tumor Differentiation and Patient Survival

Israel Levin, MD, Tiza Klein, PhD, Oded Kuperman, PhD, Shraga Segal, PhD, Jirmiahu Shapira, MD, Rivka Gal, MD, Yakov Hart, MD, Baruch Klein, MD

Expression of HLA Class I antigen was positive in 43% prostate cancer tissues of 30 patients in contrast to 21% of 29 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Patients who had HLA-positive tumors regardless of the degree of differentiation had better survival than those with negative tumors. >>>

Clinical Relevance of Αfetoprotein Microheterogeneity in Αfetoprotein-Secreting Tumors

A Saraswathi, Msc, T Malati, PhD

Serum samples of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma were predominantly composed of Concanavalin A reactive alphafetoprotein (R Con A AFP) while gonadal and extra gonadal germ cell tumors had a significant reduction of R ConA AFP with elevation of nonreactive (NR Con A AFP). Evaluation of AFP R Con A and NR Con A variants by crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis is recommended for differential diagnosis of AFP secreting tumors. >>>

Use of Screening Mammography by General Internists

Victoria M Taylor, MD, MPH, Daniel E Montano, PhD, Thomas Koepsell, MD, MPR

General internists were surveyed as to their practice and expectations with regard to the use of mammography. Only 38% always ordered mammograms for women over the age of 50 yr. Physicians related barriers such as doubts about effectiveness had a greater impact on the use of mammography than patient- related barriers such as cost and location of mammography facility. >>>

Cervical Mass Screening in Norway - 510,000 Smears a Year

Tone Bjorge, Anne B Gunbjorud, MD, Froydis Langmark, MD, Gry B Skare, Steinar 0 Thoresen, MD, PhD

In 1990 the Norwegian Department of Health and Social Affairs introduced an organized national screening program that was offered to women aged 25 to 70 yr. The results revealed 88.6% cytologically normal and 2.9% abnormal smears. Abnormal smears were found in the youngest and oldest age groups. The organized approach offered a more efficient utilization of available resources than previous extensive spontaneous screening. >>>

Fluorimetric Studies of Calmodulin Interactions with Antiestrogens

Abdallah Fanidi, PhD, Yves Guichard, MSc, Jean-Michel Fayard, PhD, Jean-Francois Pageaux, PhD, Christian Laugier, PhD

The mechanism of action of tamoxifen appeared to be more complex than its antiestrogenic effect. Tamoxifen inhibited the activation of cAMP phosphodiesterase by Calmodulin (CaM). Study of the interaction of antiestrogens with CaM revealed that the ability of different metabolites to interact with CaM correlated with their efficiency to inhibit CaM-dependent cAMP phosphodiesterase and their growth inhibitory potency. >>>

Tamoxifen and ZK 119010 Exert Mixed Agonistic and Antagonistic Effects on pS2 Expression in MCF-7 Cells

Norbert Schutze, Ph.D., Martin R Schneider, Ph.D., Rudolf Knuppen, Ph.D., Gunter Vollmer, Ph.D.

The expression of the estradiol inducible gene pS2 was used to assess estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of tamoxifen and ZK119010, a proven antiestrogen. Both antiestrogens were found to enhance pS2 expression in MCF-7 cells above background levels demonstrating both agonistic and antiagonistic effects. >>>

A Novel Gene-Transfer Technique Mediated by HVJ (Sendai Virus), Nuclear Protein, and Liposomes

Naruya Tomita, M.D., Jitsuo Higaki, M.D., Toshio 0gihara, M.D., Toru Kondo, Yasufumi Kaneda, M.D.

A novel nontoxic and efficient in vivo direct transfer method mediated by Sendai virus and liposomes enabled foreign genes to be introduced directly by membrane fusion into the cytoplasm. This was followed by their transport through nuclear proteins into the nucleus. The system is demonstrated with a functional gene for human insulin. >>>

The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results of Perioperative Implantation

Carl M Mansfield, M.D., Sc.D., Lydia T Komarnicky, M.D., Susan Reisinger, M.D., Anne L Rosenberg, M.D., Leela Krishnan, M.D., William R. Jewell, M.D., Alia Benammar, M.B.A., Janet Taylor, R.N., B.A.

Patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated at the time of re-excision IR-192 implants to the tumor bed followed by treatment of the entire breast with an external beam. Local control at 5 and 10 yr was 93% and 89% respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic results were seen in 87% of patients. Perioperative implantation decreased the overall treatment time and for certain patients decreased the need for implantation after external beam irradiation. >>>


Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA