ISPO

Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 18 / Issue 4 (Jul-Aug 1994)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Depressed Immunity and the Development of Cancer

Israel Penn, MD

The predominant lesions in 7136 organ-transplanted recipients were non-Hodgkins lymphoma, carcinomas of the skin and lip, kidney, vulva and perineum, and Kaposi's sarcoma. >>>

Glutathione S-Transferase Mu Phenotype in Patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and in Unaffected Controls

Allan D Spigelman, F.R.A.C.S., Karen P Nugent, F.R.C.S. Christophe Penna, MD, Sharmila Foulds, BA, Robin KS Phillips, MS, F.R.C.S.

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was detected in 68% of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and in 97% of the controls. When compared with a positive control sample, GST was found in 29% of patients with FAP versus 50% in the control patients. >>>

Determination of Lignans and Isoflavonoids in Plasma by Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass

Herman Adlercreutz MD, PhD, Theodore Fotsis, MD, PhD, Shaw Watanabe, MD, Johanna Lampe, PhD, Kristiina Wahala, PhD, Taru Makela, Ph.Lic, Tapio Hase, PhD

Utilization of isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of isoflavonoids and lignans revealed high values of lignans in 28 Finnish women, whereas 6 Japanese men had high plasma concentrations of some isoflavonoids. High plasma lignans in Finnish vegetarian women are related to consumption of whole grain, usually rye products and the high isoflavonoids in Japanese men to uptake of soy products. >>>

Oncogene Activation: An Informative Marker for the Human Papillomavirus-Lesions Severity

Catherine Bernard, PhD, Christiane Mougin, MD, PhD, Rene Laurent, MD, PhD, Michel Lab, MD, PhD

In 41 HPV-positive squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) 31 (76%) had c-myc and/or c-Ha-ras oncogen activation, shown by in situ hybridization. Simultaneously activated c-Ha-ras and c-myc were found in 7 of 9 (78%) of high grade SIL and in 21 of 45 (47%) mild dysplasias or koilocytosis. Protein expression of p21 ras was essentially located in the cytoplasm while p62 myc was detected in the nucleus. >>>

Prognostic Prediction in Neuroblastomas: Clinical Significance of Combined Analysis for Ha-ras, p21 Expression, and N-myc Gene Amplification

Takeo Tanaka, MD, Robert C Seeger, MD, Masahiro Tanabe, MD, Eiso Hiyama, MD, Hiroko Shimoda, MD, Noriaki Ida, MD

In patients with neuroblastoma a high Ha-ras p24 expression was found in correlation with 89% survival, while low expression was associated with a 21% survival. High N-myc gene amplification was detected in 14 (56%) of 25 patients who had died of progressive disease. >>>

New Serum Markers for Small-Cell Lung cancer. II. the Neural Cell Adhesion molecule, NCAM

Annette Vangsted, MD, Lars Drivsholm, MD, Elo Andersen, MD, Elisabeth Bock, MD

The serum neural cell adhesion molecule marker was positive in 21 of 96 patients (22%) with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and negative in all 16 patients with non-SCLC. >>>

Mutagen Sensitivity as a Marker of Cancer Risk

Margaret R. Spitz, MD, MPH, and TC Hsu, PhD

Mutagen sensitivity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by in vitro bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks. In patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the aerodigestive tract, a significant risk factor of mutagen sensitivity was based upon presence of more than 0.8 chromosome breaks (b/c) per cell. Mutagen sensitivity as a result of defective DNA repair capability was found in head and neck cancer patients who had second primary malignancies and in individuals with a family history of cancer. >>>

Mammography Screening Controversies

Anthony B Miller, MB, FRCP

Analysis of results from 6 mammography-screening centers failed to show evidence that in women aged 40 to 49 screening reduced cancer mortality significantly. Screening of women aged 50 to 59 with yearly mammography in addition to physical examination detected more node-negative and small breast cancers than screening with physical examination alone. >>>

Effect of Tamoxifen on Mammary Preneoplasia: Relevance to Chemopreventive Intervention

Nitin T Telang, PhD, H Leon Bradlow, PhD, Michael P Osborne, MD

Tamoxifen suppressed rat mammary terminal end buds and inhibited cell proliferative activity and post initiational events of mammary preneoplastic tranformation. It is suggested that tamoxifen provides effective primary prevention in populations at risk for breast cancer. >>>

Ethical Issues: Changing Attitudes and Practices

Maureen M Henderson, M.D.

Ethical issues in cancer prevention research are reviewed for a range of controversial aspects. These include, among others, the politics of research funding decisions, screening of young women for a breast cancer gene, chemoprevention trials, use of placebo in randomized therapeutic trials, inconclusiveness and clearness of informed consent, tolerance of toxicity particulalry concerning healthy volunteers and communication of an abnormal function test or risk of disease to healthy women. >>>

 

Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA
1994